Slapyak has an interesting tutorial on creating a Guitar Hero MIDI controller.
With the current version you can:
- play 2 octaves of an 8 note scale at a time
- change the starting note anywhere in the range of a regular keyboard
- change octaves
- change keys
- change tonal modes (Ionian, Mixolydian, Lydian, Dorian, Aeolian, Phrygian, Locrian)
- change the timbre of a sound
- change the resonance of a sound
- use the whammy bar to pitchbend
- play chords in the mode you have the guitar set to (major/minor/etc.)
- rock out with a video game toy
Here’s a high-level flow for the MIDI controller:
Guitar –> Arduino –> LEDs & MIDI –> external MIDI device.
Details are available at the Slapyak site.
Here’s a short video of the Guitar Hero MIDI controller in action: